I. Anthropology

 Definition of anthropology, its historical development and recent trends
II. Social Anthropology
 Definition of culture, its characteristics and functions
 Relationship of anthropology with other social sciences
 Subfields of anthro:
a) Biological Anthro
b) Archaeology,
c) Linguistic Anthropology
d) Socio-Cultural Anthropology

 Institution of Family and Marriage
(Definitions, types, structures, functions, family organization)
 Kinship and Social Organization
(Definitions, types, functions, kinship terminology etc)
 Economic Organization:
(Definitions, evolution, substantive versus formalism, reciprocity, production,
consumption, distribution, barter and primitive economic systems)

 Political Organization:
(Definitions, the evolution of the political system, characteristics of (band, tribal, chiefdom
and state societies), theories of the origin of state societies (internal conflict
theories, external conflict theories, population and irrigation theories,
institutionalization of leadership and the emergence of the state, and system theories),
origin of civilization, the politics of identity, ethnicity and ethnic relations,
nationalism, modernism, post-modernism etc.

 Religion:
(Definitions, the evolution of primitive religions, functions of religion, comparison of
Devine religions and other world religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism
 Contemporary Human Problems:
Poverty, social inequality, political instability, population problems, ethnic violence
and terrorism etc.

Revised Scheme and Syllabus for CSS Competitive Examination
III. Urban Anthropology
Rural-urban migration, expansion of cities, major environmental issues, sanitation
problems, urbanization and development, the establishment of slums and squatter settlements,
refugees, Yankees, betties, gipsies, wars and conflict, conversion of power from feudal to
industrialists, institutionalization, education system, and change in the mode of production
(agriculture to capitalists), poverty (theories and remedies), management of city life
(psychological, cultural, economic, political, religious, physical, environmental, ecological,
demographical, lingual etc.), Karl Marx and conflict theory, problems created by the
mechanization and automation.

IV. Socio-Cultural Change
Definitions, the difference between social and cultural change, various dimensions of cultural
change, barriers to cultural change including (cultural, psychological and political), internal
dynamics for change, external dynamics for change, population increase and change,
diffusion of innovations, socio-religious barriers in accepting innovations and new ideas,
media and cultural change, dynamics of change in Pakistan (Trends and prospects)
V. Ethnicity and Race
Theories related to ethnicity and race, ethnicity and racism, nations and nationality, ethnic
conflict, degree of social variation, rank societies, caste and class societies and social
stratification etc.

VI. Anthropological Theories
 Contributors: (Edward Burnett Taylor, Lewis Henry Morgan, James Frazer, Karl
Marx, Edmund Leach, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Alfred L.
Krobber, Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown, Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski, Clifford
Geertz, Talal Asad, Akbar S. Ahamd, Ibn Khaldun, Shah Walliullah)
 Classical Theories: (Degenerations, Evolutionism, Neo-Evolutionism, Diffusions)
 Modern Theories: (Functionalism, Structural-functionalism, Class struggle,
Structuralism, Historical Particularism, Feminism, Culture and personality)
 Current Trends in Anthropological Thoughts: (Post Modernism, Romanticism,
Poetics and Politics of Ethnography)

VII. Anthropological Research Methods
 Meaning, definition, types and aims of anthropological research
 Qualitative and Quantitative research
 Purpose of research, research question, variables, hypothesis, research
objective(s), research design, sampling, field data collection, tools of data
collection (questionnaire, interview, participant observation), data classification,
data analysis, and reporting.


1.AnthropologyWilliam A Haviland
2.Cultural AnthropologyOnrad Philip Kottak
3.Diffusion of InnovationEvert M. Roger
4.Socio-Cultural Dynamics and impact of
Technological Change
G. M. Foster
5.Pakistani SocietyAkber S. Ahmed
6.Economic AnthropologySutti Ortiz
7.Political Anthropology: An introductionTed. C. Lewellen
8.Pukhtun economy and societyAkber S. Ahmed
9.Principles of AnthroEliot Dismore Chapple and
Carleton Stevens Coon
10.Anthropology and Modern lifeFranz Boas
11.Anthropology and Contemporary Human
John H. Bodley
12.Sindh and the Races that inhabit the Valley of
the Indus
Richard Burton
13.The People of PakistanYu. V. Gankorvsky
14.Anthro and DevelopmentJean-Pierre Olivier de
15.An Introduction to Theory in AnthroRobert Layton
16.Anthropological TheoryJohn R. McGee and Richard
L. Warms
17.Anthropology in PakistanStephen Pastner and Louis
18.Anthro (13th edition)Carol R. Ember, Melvin R
Ember and Pet N Peregrine
19.Other CulturesJohn Beattie
20.A Hand Book of Social Science ResearchBevelry R. Dixon, Gary D
Bouma and G.B.J. Atiinson
21.Frontier Perspectives: Essays in Comparative
Clarlies Lindholm
22.Generosity and Jealousy: The Swat Pukhtun of
Northern Pakistan
Clarlies Lindholm
23.Friend by Day and Enemy by Night: Organized
Vengeance in a Kohistani Community
Lincoin Keiser
24.A Punjabi Village in PakistanZekiye Eglar
25.The social organization of the Marri BaluchRobert Niel Pehrson
26.Introducing AnthropologyPark, MA 2007
27.Peoples and Cultures of AsiaScupin, R 2005
28.Outlines and Highlights for AnthropologyScupin, R and Decorse, CR
29.Economic AnthropologyStuart plattner
30.Economies and CultureRichard Wilk
31.Introduction to Anthropology of ReligionBrian Moris

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