I. Animal Diversity-Invertebrates
 Architectural pattern of an animal, Taxonomy and phylogeny, Major subdivisions of
animal kingdom.
 Animal-Like Protists: The Protozoa: evolutionary perspective, locomotion and
reproduction, Protozoa of veterinary and medical importance.
 Porifera: Body wall, skeleton and water currents system. Coelenterates:
Reproduction plan and alteration of generation (Polymorphism), Coral reefs.
 Platyhelminthes and Nematodes: Parasitic adaptations and medical importance.
Annelids: Metamerism and ecological importance.
 Molluscs: Modification of foot, Feeding and their role in the shell fishery.
 Arthropods: Modification in their mouth parts, Role of arthropods as vectors in the
transmission in microbial infection. Arthropods and their ecological importance.
 Echinoderms: Characteristics, Evolutionary perspective, Relationships to other
animals; echinoderm characteristics.
II. Animal Diversity-Chordata
 Hemichordates and Invertebrate Chordates: Evolutionary Perspective: Phylogenetic
Relationships and considerations.
 Fishes: Structural and functional adaptations of fishes.
 Amphibians: Movement onto land and early evolution of terrestrial vertebrates.
 Reptiles: Characteristics of reptiles, adaptations in reptilians.
 Birds: Migration and navigation, adaptations.
 Mammals: Structural and functional adaptations of mammals.
III. Principles of Animal Life
 The chemical basis of animal life: Brief introduction to bio-molecules; carbohydrates,
lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
 Cell concept and cell theory, Organization of cellular organelle (their structure and
functions), Central dogma of cell biology (Transcription and Translation), Meiosis and
 Protozoa: Reproduction pattern in protozoan, Parasitism in protozoan
 Mesozoza and Parazoa: Porifera: Cells types, body wall and skeleton and water
currents system, Coelenterata: Reproduction plan and alteration of generation
 Tissues Types: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissues; organs and
organ systems.
 Enzymes function and factors affecting their activity, cofactors and coenzymes.
Energy Harvesting: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration the major source of ATP.

 Mendel’s law of inheritance, Chromosomal basis of inheritance, Multiple alleles,
Eukaryotic chromosomes: Mutations and chromosomal aberrations.
 Ecological Concepts: Interactions, Concepts and components of ecosystem, Food
chain, Food web, Biogeochemical cycles, Forests, Biomes, Wildlife conservation and
management, Environmental pollution, Green house effect, Acid rain, Global
warming and climate change.
 Evolution: Darwinian evolutionary theory based on natural selection and the
evidence, Microevolution: Genetic variation and change within species,
Macroevolution: Species and speciation (Allopatric, Parapatric and Sympatric
IV. Animal Form and Function
 Protection, Support and Movement: Integumentary system of invertebrates and
vertebrates; Animal muscles: the muscular system of invertebrates and vertebrates.
 Digestion and Nutrition: Feeding mechanism, Digestion, Organization and regional
function of alimentary canal, Regulation of food intake, Nutritional requirements
 Internal Fluids and Respiration: Internal fluid environment, Composition of blood,
Circulation and respiration mechanisms
 Homeostasis: Excretion, Vertebrate kidney mechanisms, Temperature regulation
 Nervous Coordination: Nervous system and Senses: Functional units of nervous
system, Synapses junctions between nerves.
 Chemical Coordination: Endocrine System; Vertebrate endocrine glands and types
of hormones, Mechanism of hormones action,
 Animal Behavior: Learning, Habituation, Insight learning, latent learning, classical
learning: Control of Behavior; social behavior


1.Integrated Principles of Zoology.Hickman, Jr. C.P., Keen, S. L,
Larson, and Eisenhour, D.J.
2.ZoologyMiller, S. A. and Harley, J. B.
3.BiologyCampbell, N.A.
4.Evolution. 2nd EditionDouglas Futuyma
5.Animal behavior:- An Evolutionary Approach,
(9th Edition)
John Alcock

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