Zoology

I. Animal Diversity-Invertebrates
 Architectural pattern of an animal, Taxonomy and phylogeny, Major subdivisions of
animal kingdom.
 Animal-Like Protists: The Protozoa: evolutionary perspective, locomotion and
reproduction, Protozoa of veterinary and medical importance.
 Porifera: Body wall, skeleton and water currents system. Coelenterates:
Reproduction plan and alteration of generation (Polymorphism), Coral reefs.
 Platyhelminthes and Nematodes: Parasitic adaptations and medical importance.
Annelids: Metamerism and ecological importance.
 Molluscs: Modification of foot, Feeding and their role in the shell fishery.
 Arthropods: Modification in their mouth parts, Role of arthropods as vectors in the
transmission in microbial infection. Arthropods and their ecological importance.
 Echinoderms: Characteristics, Evolutionary perspective, Relationships to other
animals; echinoderm characteristics.
II. Animal Diversity-Chordata
 Hemichordates and Invertebrate Chordates: Evolutionary Perspective: Phylogenetic
Relationships and considerations.
 Fishes: Structural and functional adaptations of fishes.
 Amphibians: Movement onto land and early evolution of terrestrial vertebrates.
 Reptiles: Characteristics of reptiles, adaptations in reptilians.
 Birds: Migration and navigation, adaptations.
 Mammals: Structural and functional adaptations of mammals.
III. Principles of Animal Life
 The chemical basis of animal life: Brief introduction to bio-molecules; carbohydrates,
lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
 Cell concept and cell theory, Organization of cellular organelle (their structure and
functions), Central dogma of cell biology (Transcription and Translation), Meiosis and
Mitosis
 Protozoa: Reproduction pattern in protozoan, Parasitism in protozoan
 Mesozoza and Parazoa: Porifera: Cells types, body wall and skeleton and water
currents system, Coelenterata: Reproduction plan and alteration of generation
(Polymorphism)
 Tissues Types: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissues; organs and
organ systems.
 Enzymes function and factors affecting their activity, cofactors and coenzymes.
Energy Harvesting: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration the major source of ATP.

 Mendel’s law of inheritance, Chromosomal basis of inheritance, Multiple alleles,
Eukaryotic chromosomes: Mutations and chromosomal aberrations.
 Ecological Concepts: Interactions, Concepts and components of ecosystem, Food
chain, Food web, Biogeochemical cycles, Forests, Biomes, Wildlife conservation and
management, Environmental pollution, Green house effect, Acid rain, Global
warming and climate change.
 Evolution: Darwinian evolutionary theory based on natural selection and the
evidence, Microevolution: Genetic variation and change within species,
Macroevolution: Species and speciation (Allopatric, Parapatric and Sympatric
speciation)
IV. Animal Form and Function
 Protection, Support and Movement: Integumentary system of invertebrates and
vertebrates; Animal muscles: the muscular system of invertebrates and vertebrates.
 Digestion and Nutrition: Feeding mechanism, Digestion, Organization and regional
function of alimentary canal, Regulation of food intake, Nutritional requirements
 Internal Fluids and Respiration: Internal fluid environment, Composition of blood,
Circulation and respiration mechanisms
 Homeostasis: Excretion, Vertebrate kidney mechanisms, Temperature regulation
 Nervous Coordination: Nervous system and Senses: Functional units of nervous
system, Synapses junctions between nerves.
 Chemical Coordination: Endocrine System; Vertebrate endocrine glands and types
of hormones, Mechanism of hormones action,
 Animal Behavior: Learning, Habituation, Insight learning, latent learning, classical
learning: Control of Behavior; social behavior


SUGGESTED READINGS

S.No.TitleAuthor
1.Integrated Principles of Zoology.Hickman, Jr. C.P., Keen, S. L,
Larson, and Eisenhour, D.J.
2.ZoologyMiller, S. A. and Harley, J. B.
3.BiologyCampbell, N.A.
4.Evolution. 2nd EditionDouglas Futuyma
5.Animal behavior:- An Evolutionary Approach,
(9th Edition)
John Alcock

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