I. Algae, Fungi and Bryophytes
 Phycology: Distribution, Classification, Structure, Life History and Economic
importance of the main groups of Algae.
 Mycology and Plant Pathology: Structure, Reproduction, Classification and
Economic importance of the main groups of Fungi. Diseases of economically
important crops and general principles of their control
 Bryology: Structure and reproduction of bryophytes, Evolution of Gametophyte
and Sporophyte.

II. Pteridophyte and Gymnosperms
 General account with special reference to structure, life history and affinities of
both Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Ontogeny and structure of seed,
classification and economic importance of Gymnosperms.
III. Anatomy and Embryology
 Primary and secondary tissues. Meristems. Secondary growth in dicot stem.
Anatomy of leaf, stem and root.
 Micro and megas porogenesis, pollination mechanism, fertilization, development of
Embryo and Endosperm, Seed dispersal.

IV. Taxonomy of Angiosperms
 Systems of classification. Rules of botanical nomenclature. Concepts of
speciation. Introduction to modern trends in plant taxonomy: bio-systematic,
chemotaxonomy and numerical taxonomy. General characters and economic
importance of common angiosperm families.

V. Plant Physiology
 Plant water relations, Osmotic Quantities, component potentials of water and their
role in transport, water absorption by roots, transpiration. Role of essential mineral
elements and their uptake. Plant hormones. Photoperiodism, Vernalization.
Dormancy and Seed germination.Enzymes.
 Photosynthesis: Plant pigments, Light reaction, CO2 fixation, Mechanism of

Respiration: Glycolysis, Kreb cycle, Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation.

 Influence of climatic, edaphic and biotic factors on plant growth. Vegetation
sampling techniques. Concepts of ecosystems and their productivity, ecological
energetics, Pyramids (of numbers, biomass and energy), trophic levels, food
chains and food webs. Biogeochemical cycles (Hydrological and Nitrogen).
 Causes and reclamation of soil salinity and water logging in Pakistan. Soil
erosion, its control and soil conservation methods. Deforestation. Biodiversity

VII. Cytology
 Cell cycle, cellular morphology, chemistry of cell wall and cell membrane, cell to
cell communication, plant tissue and cell culture, cell senescence and cell death.
 Ultra-structure of various cell organelles: Mitochondria, Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic
reticulum, Plastids, Ribosomes, Glyoxysomes, Vaculoes, Nucleus.
VIII. Genetics
 Mendelian Genetics, Multiple Alleles, Polygenic inheritance, Gene interaction,
Epistasis and pleiotropy, Sex-linked inheritance, Chromosomal aberrations,
Mutations, DNA repair.

IX. Evolution
 Introduction of Evolution, Evolutionary history, Evolution of life, Convergent
Evolution, Divergent Evolution, Parallel Evolution and Natural selection
X. Molecular Biology
 Nucleic acids, DNA as hereditary material, DNA replication, Transcription, Genetic
code, Protein synthesis, Genetic engineering and its application, Genetically
Modified Organisms (GMO).


S. No.TitleAuthor
1.Esau’s Plant Anatormy: Meristems, Cells and
Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure,
Function and Development
Evert, F.F. and S.
Hichhorn 2006
2.Cryptogamic Botany-Algae and FungiSmith, G. M. 2001
3.Cryptogamic Botany-Bryophyte and
Smith, G. M. 2001
4.Comparative Morphology of the Vascular PlantsFoster, A.S. and E.H.
Gifford. 1989
5.Plant and EnvironmentDaubermine, R, F, 1974
6.Plant Taxonomy and BiosystematicsStac, C. A. 1980
7.Plant PhysiologyTaiz, L.& E. Zeiger 2006
8.Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. 4th editionPierce, B. A. 2012
9.Molecular Cell BiologyLodish,H., A. Berk, S.L.
Zipursky, P. Matsudaira,
D. Baltimore and J.
Darnell 2000
10.Concepts of Genetics. 10th editionWilliam S. Klug. 2012
11.Ilmi Biomolecules, Cell Biology and Genetics.Cheema, T.A. and
Cheema Z.T. 2009
S. No.TitleAuthor
12.Carvan Textbook of Botany Paper “ A”
(Morphology of Plants)
Malik, T. A. 2006
13.Ecology (Principles and applications). 1st ed.
Cambridge University Press UK.
Chapman, J.L. and Reiss,
M.J. 1992.
14.Fundamentals of EcologyOdum, E.P. and Barrett,
G.W. 2004
15.Advanced Plant TaxonomyMondal, A. K., 2009
16.Growth and Differentiation in PlantsPhillips and Wareings


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