Environmental Science

I. History of Environmental Thought
Environment and Sustainable Development, History of Environmental Movements,
Industrial and Agriculture Revolution, United Nations Conference on Human Environment
1972, Our Common Future 1987, Rio Summit 1992, Agenda 21, World Summit on
Sustainable Development 2002, Rio Summit-II, 2012, Millennium Development Goals.
II. Sustainable Development Issues
Population growth, Poverty, Biodiversity loss and its Conservation, Energy security (energy
conservation and alternative energy resources), Urbanization and sustainable cities,
Carrying capacity and ecological footprint. Food security and sustainable agriculture.
Ecological restoration.
III. Interdisciplinary nature of Environmental Science
Orientation on convergence of various social and natural sciences to evolve a new
discipline of environmental science: Environmental Biology, Environmental Chemistry,
Environmental Physics, Environmental Microbiology, Environmental Toxicology,
Environmental Economics, Environmental Geology, Environmental Geography,
Environmental Biotechnology, Environmental Sociology.
IV. Environmental Pollution
Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Soil Pollution, Noise Pollution, Solid Waste, Water Logging &
Salinity, Deforestation, Desertification, Eutrophication, Global and regional air pollution
problems (Greenhouse effect, Global Warming/Climate Change, Ozone Depletion, Acid
Rain).
V. Climate Change
Climate Pattern at local, regional and global scale. Different types of climate including
tropical and mid latitude climate, polar climates. Climate change processes, Drivers and
Indicators of Climate Change, Effects of Climate Change on natural and societal systems.
Carbon foot print. Climate change adaptation and mitigation, Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM), REDD+. Global environmental politics on climate change: role of India,
China and USA (Copenhagen Accord 2009).
VI. Environmental Governance
Policy, legal and institutional frameworks for governance of environment in Pakistan:
National Conservation Strategy of 1992, National Environmental Policy Act of Pakistan
2005, Environmental Protection Act of 1997, Pak-EPA (Review of IEE/EIA) Regulations
2000, Hospital Waste Management Rules 2005, Pollution Charge Rules, Sample Rules,
Solid Waste Management Plan 2005, Hazardous Substances Rules 2005, National
Drinking Water Policy 2009, Sanitation Policy, National Climate Change Policy 2012.
VII. Global initiatives
Brief on some of the Multilateral Environmental Agreements ratified by Pakistan,
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety, Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Convention
on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar
Convention), Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS), United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Kyoto Protocol to UNFCCC,
Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer, United Nations Convention
to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).
VIII. Environmental Assessment and Management
Environmental Impact Assessment, Strategic Environmental Assessment, Environmental
Management Systems (ISO 14000), Occupational Health & Safety management systems
(OHSAS 18000), Participatory Approaches to Environmental Management, Technological
Approaches to Environmental Management, Approaches to Solid Waste Management,
Disaster Risk Management, Pollution Control Technologies, Geographic Information
System & Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Management.

SUGGESTED READINGS

S.No.TitleAuthor
1.Environmental Economics in Theory and
Practice.
Hanley, N.
Shorgen,J,White,B
2.Industrial Safety Health and Environmental
Management
Jain R.K. Rao S.S
3.Environmental Science: Earth as a living
Planet, 9th ed.
Botkin, D. Keller, E. 2014
4.Environmental Geology Facing the Challenges
of Our Changing Earth
Erickson, J
5.Environmental Geology.Keller A.Edward
6.Earth Science.Tarbuck. J. Edward
Lutgens K. Friederick
7.Environmental Science: A Study of
Interrelationship
Enger ED, Smith, B.F
8.Basics of Forestry and Applied Sciences,
Concepts and Theory
Masood A.A Qureshi
9.Environmental Science: Working with EarthMiller. T.G
10Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s
Handbook
Carter N.W
11Disasters and DevelopmentCuny, F.C.
12Disaster Management: Warning Response
and Community Relocation
Perry R.W. Mushkatel,
A.H.
13Energy: Crisis or Opportunity, An Introduction
to Energy Studies
Diana Schumacher
14Environmental GeologyCarla W. Montgomery
15Environmental Health; Ecological PerspectiveKathryn Hilgenkamp
16Official Website of Govt. of Pakistanwww.environment. gov.pk
17Official Website of UN Environment
Programme.
www.unep.org

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