Criminology Section-I (25 Marks)

I. Introduction
Basic concepts used in understanding crime, criminality and criminal behaviour.
II. Understanding Criminology
Definition, meaning and scope of criminology; Criminology and criminal law; Crime as
social problem; Deviance, Sin Vice, Evil, Norms, Values; Security (Physical, Social,

III. Crime and Criminals
Occasional criminals, Habitual criminals, Professional criminals, White-collar crime,
Organized crime, corporate crimes.
IV. Crime and Criminality: Theoretical Perspectives
Early explanation of criminal behavior
 Biological Theories; Psychological Theories; Sociological Theories.
 Social Disorganization theory
 Strain theory
 Social Control theory
 Learning theory
 Labeling Theory
 Islamic perspective on deviance and crime.
Section-II (25 Marks)

V. Juvenile Delinquency
Meaning, definitions (Behavioral Vs Legal), Juvenile delinquent Vs status offender,
Official statistics of juvenile delinquency
VI. Juvenile Justice System
 Role of police
 Juvenile court process:
 pretrial, trial and sentencing
 Role of prosecutor, defense counsel, juvenile judge, juvenile probation officer
 Juvenile correctional institutions; probation and non-punitive alternatives


VII. The Criminal Justice System:
 Police and its role
 Trial and Conviction of Offenders
 Agencies: formal and informal
 Criminal courts: procedures and problems
 Role of prosecutors
 Prisons, Probation and Parole
VIII. Punitive and Reformative Treatment of Criminals
Corporal punishment, Imprisonment, Rehabilitation of criminals.
Section-III (25 Marks)

IX. Criminal Investigation
Principles of criminal investigation, Manual of preliminary investigation, Intelligence
operations, Data base investigation, Electronic investigation, Forensic Investigation
X. Techniques of Investigations
Gathering information from persons, Interviewing and interrogation techniques,
Criminal investigation analysis,
XI. Legal and Ethical Guidelines for Investigators
Stop and frisk operations, Arrest procedures, Search and seizure.

XII. International Policing and Criminal Justice Monitoring Organizations

Section-IV (25 Marks)
XIII. Modern Concepts in Contemporary Criminology
 Terrorism, Radicalism and War on Terror
 Media’s representation of Crime and the Criminal Justice System
 Modern Law Enforcement and Crime Prevention
 Intelligence-led Policing
 Community Policing
 Private Public Partnership
 Gender and Crime in Urban and Rural Pakistan
 Crime and Urbanization, Organized Crime and White-Collar Crime
 Human Rights Abuses and Protection, especially of Children; Women and
Minorities; The role of civil society and NGOs
 Money-laundering
 Cyber Crime
 Role of NAB, FIA, ANF


1.New Perspectives in CriminologyConklin, J.E
2.Criminal Interrogation and Confessions.Fred, E.I., John, E.R.,
Joseph, P.B. and
Brian, C.J.
3.Theoretical CriminologyGeorge B. Vold,
Thomas J. Bernard,
Jeffrey B. Snipes
4.Modern Criminology: Crime, Criminal Behavior and its
Hagan, J.
5.Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated ApproachJames, B.
6.Security Studies: An IntroductionPaul, D.W.
7.Crime, Justice and Society: An Introduction to
Ronald, J.B., Marvin,
D.F. and Patricia, S.
8.Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and LawSeigel, L.J.
9.Crime Prevention: Theory and PracticeStephen, S.


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