Journalism And Mass communication

Journalism And Mass communication
Journalism And Mass communication

I. Introduction to Mass Communication
Concept – Definitions, Need/Importance/Purposes, Types of Communication,
Process of Communication, Basic Models.
Functions of a model, Evaluation of a model
Basic models in Mass Communication: –
Lasswell’s Model (1948)
Shannon-Weaver model (1948)
o Osgood,s model (1954)
o Schramm’s model (1954)
o Newcomb’s symmetry theory (1953)
o Westley-McLean’s model (1976)
o Gerbner model (1956)

II. Mass Communication Theories in Journalism And Mass communication
 Normative theories of the press: Schramm’s four theories and criticism on these
 Media as agents of power
 The Spiral of silence
 Media Usage and gratifications
 Media hegemony
 Diffusion of innovations
 Powerful effects model: hypodermic needle, magic bullet theory.
 Moderate effects model: two-step and multi-step flow of communication.
 Powerful media revisited: Marshal McLuhan’s media determinism

III. Global / International Communication in Journalism And Mass communication
 The Historical Context of International Communication
 Globalization, technology, and the mass media
 Communication and Cultural imperialism
 Communication Flow in Global Media: Imbalance in the flow of information
between North and South
 McBride commission and its recommendations.
 International Communication in the Internet Age: the new social media and its
effects on developing world Revised Scheme and Syllabus for CSS Competitive Examination

Journalism And Mass communication

IV. Media and Society in Journalism And Mass communication
 Mass media and social change
 Media as a social system: The balance between interrelation and
 Media freedom and its role for democracy,
 The functional approach to mass media: four social functions of the media
 Media as an awareness agent
 Mass media and social representation

V. Mass Media in Pakistan in Journalism And Mass communication
 Media system in Pakistan: historical, chronological, and analytical review
 The system of journalism and the media system
 Employer-employee relations in Pakistani media
 Government-press relations
 Press in Pakistan: The newspaper industry, from mission to the market
 Electronic media: from total dependence to enormous power
 The new 24/7 television: uses and abuses
 The new radio: potential for change and the present performance.
 The question of freedom and responsibility

VI. Development Support Communication
 Theories of development support communication with specific focus on the
developing world
 The dominant paradigm of development: historical, analytical perspective
 The Alternative paradigm of development
 Small is beautiful: community development as a snowball effect.
 Globalization vs Localization
 Glocalization
 Social Marketing: how to infuse new ideas into a developing population

VII. Public Relations in Journalism And Mass communication
 Concept of Public Relations
 Historical development of public relations: from press agentry to PR
 Public relation in Pakistan
 Ministry of information
 Press Information Department (PID)
 Public relations and publicity
 PR as a tool for governance
 Private PR agencies and their structure
Revised Scheme and Syllabus for CSS Competitive Examination
 Basic methods of PR: press release, press note, press conference
 PR Ethics

VIII. Media Laws and Ethics in Journalism And Mass communication
 History of Media Laws in Pakistan
 Development of media regulations from British colonial era to independent
 Libel, Defamation and relevant portions of PPC
 PEMRA: establishment, development, and operational mechanisms
 Press Council of Pakistan (PCP)
 Citizens Media Commission: need, present status, and reasons for inactivity
 Press Code of Ethics
 Inability of the media to develop a code of ethics as an institution
 The media’s quest for freedom and its inability to self regulate.

Suggested Reading For Journalism And Mass communication

S No.TitleAuthor
1.Broadcast Regulations: the German ExampleMetzger, Herbert. FES 1993.
2.Communication Models for The Study of Mass
Communication, 2nd Ed
McQuail, Dennis &Windhal, Swen,
Longman, 1982.
3.Convergence Culture: Where old and new
Blackwell publishing Ltd, USA.
4.Communication Theories: Origins, Methods
and Uses in the Mass Media 5th Ed
Werner J. Severin, James W.
Tankard Jr. Longman, 1997.
5.Diffusion of Innovations 5th EdRogers, Everett M. Free Press
6.Ethics in Journalism: A Reader on Their
Perception in the Third World
Kunczik, Michael (Ed.). FES 1999.
7.Handbook of International and Intercultural
Communication 2nd Ed
Gudykunst & Mody, Sage, 2001.
8.McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory, 4th
Denis McQuail. Sage, 2000.
9.Media And Society into the 21st Century: A
Historical Introduction
Blackwell publishing Ltd, USA.
10.“Media / Impact”Wads Worth/ Thompson Learning,
Belmont, CA
11.“Media Now: Communication Media in the
Information Age”
Wads Worth/Thompson Learning,
Belmont, CA
Journalism And Mass communication
S No.TitleAuthor
12.News Media and Journalism in PakistanKhan, Altaf. LAP Lambert
Academic Publishing. June 2011.
13.News Media and Journalism in Pakistan and
Germany (Ed.)
Khan, Altaf. Peshawar, 2003.
14.Participatory DevelopmentHasan, Arif, Oxford, 2010.
15.Political Communication in Britain: The Leader
Debates, the Campaign and the Media in the
2010 General Election, (Ed)
Palgrave McMillan, UK
16.Political Communication in Asia,Roultage, NY.
17.“Precision Journalism: A Reporter’s
Introduction to Social and Science Methods”,
4th Ed
Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham,
18.Report and Recommendations of the Media
Commission, appointed by the Supreme Court
of Pakistan, 2013
FES, Islamabad, 2013.
19.Reporting the Frontier: Media Capacity
Building for Peace in Pakistan’s Tribal Areas
Khan, Altaf VDM Verlag Dr.
Müllere.K. June 2011.
20.“Writing, Directing, and Producing
Documentary Films and Vidoes”,.3rd edition
Carbondale: Southern Illinois
Press, 2002.
21.“Directing the Documentary”, 4th editionFocal Press, 2004.
22.“Documentary Storytelling: Making Stronger
and More Dramatic Nonfiction Films”, 2nd
Focal Press, 2007.
23.Principles of EditingMcGraw-Hill 1996
24.Journalism–Principles and PracticesVistaar Publications 2006
25.The Hand Book of New MediaLondon: Sage
26.Applying Communication Theory for
Professional Life: An Introduction (2nd Edition)
London: Sage
27.Controversies in Contemporary AdvertisingNewbury Park: Sage Publications
28.“Public Relations-Writing & Media
Harper Collins College Publishers,
29.Telecommunications Policy in Pakistan”Telematics and Informatics
30.“Guaranteeing Copyright- Media Manager’s
Guide to Pakistani Broadcast Law”
Media Manager Companion Series
Internews Pakistan
31.“Model Freedom of Information Act”, 2001Consumer rights Protection
Commission of Pakistan
Journalism And Mass communication


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