Definition, Nature and Scope of Philosophy
II.Philosophical Methods:
Socratic Method (Socrates); Inductive Method (Bacon, Mill); Deductive Method

(Aristotle, Descartes); Dialectical Method (Hegel); Fallibilistic Method (Popper)

III.Epistemology: Rationalism (Plato, Descartes, Spinoza); Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley,
Hume); Transcendentalism (Kant); Intuitionism (Bergson)
Ontology: Idealism (Plato, Berkeley); Representative Realism (Locke); Historical and
Dialectical Materialism (Marx)

V. Ethics: What is morality? The challenge of cultural relativism; Does morality depend
on religion? Psychological and ethical egoism: Virtue Ethics (Aristotle); Moral
Absolutism (Kant), Utilitarianism (J.S. Mill); Social Contract Theory (Hobbes, Rawls).

VI.Muslim Thinkers: Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Al-Ghazali, Ibn Rushid, Ibn Khaldun, Shah
Waliullah, Muhammad Iqbal.

VII. Contemporary Philosophical Movements:
Existentialism (Heidegger, Sartre); Pragmatism (Peirce, James, Dewey);
Neo-pragmatism (Rorty); Postmodernism (Lyotard, Foucault, Derrida)

Suggested Reading For Philosophy

1.A History of Western PhiloBertrand Russell
2.Philosophy: The Power of IdeasBrooke Noel Moore &
Kenneth Bruder
3.Elements of Moral PhiloJames Rachels
4.Existentialism & Human EmotionsJean Paul Sartre
5.The Postmodern Condition: A Report on KnowledgeJean-Francois Lyotard
6.Descartes to Derrida: An Introduction to European
Peter Sedgwick
7.Continental Philo in the 20th CenturyRichard Kearney
8.A Short History of Modern PhiloRoger Scruton
9.A History of Muslim Philo. Volume I & IIM. M. Sharif
10.A History of Islamic PhiloMajid Fakhry
11.The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in IslamMuhammad Iqbal
12.IqbalMustansir Mir
13.Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Internet Resources
14.Internet Encyclopedia of PhilosophyInternet Resources

What is Islam? Is it best code of life?

Why Students Fail in CSS Examination

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