Definition, Nature and Scope of Philosophy
II.Philosophical Methods:
Socratic Method (Socrates); Inductive Method (Bacon, Mill); Deductive Method

(Aristotle, Descartes); Dialectical Method (Hegel); Fallibilistic Method (Popper)

III.Epistemology: Rationalism (Plato, Descartes, Spinoza); Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley,
Hume); Transcendentalism (Kant); Intuitionism (Bergson)
Ontology: Idealism (Plato, Berkeley); Representative Realism (Locke); Historical and
Dialectical Materialism (Marx)

V. Ethics: What is morality? The challenge of cultural relativism; Does morality depend
on religion? Psychological and ethical egoism: Virtue Ethics (Aristotle); Moral
Absolutism (Kant), Utilitarianism (J.S. Mill); Social Contract Theory (Hobbes, Rawls).

VI.Muslim Thinkers: Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Al-Ghazali, Ibn Rushid, Ibn Khaldun, Shah
Waliullah, Muhammad Iqbal.

VII. Contemporary Philosophical Movements:
Existentialism (Heidegger, Sartre); Pragmatism (Peirce, James, Dewey);
Neo-pragmatism (Rorty); Postmodernism (Lyotard, Foucault, Derrida)


1.A History of Western PhilosophyBertrand Russell
2.Philosophy: The Power of IdeasBrooke Noel Moore &
Kenneth Bruder
3.Elements of Moral PhilosophyJames Rachels
4.Existentialism & Human EmotionsJean Paul Sartre
5.The Postmodern Condition: A Report on KnowledgeJean-Francois Lyotard
6.Descartes to Derrida: An Introduction to European
Peter Sedgwick
7.Continental Philosophy in the 20th CenturyRichard Kearney
8.A Short History of Modern PhilosophyRoger Scruton
9.A History of Muslim Philosophy. Volume I & IIM. M. Sharif
10.A History of Islamic PhilosophyMajid Fakhry
11.The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in IslamMuhammad Iqbal
12.IqbalMustansir Mir
13.Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Internet Resources
14.Internet Encyclopedia of PhilosophyInternet Resources
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