Geography Part –I (Marks 50)

Physical Geography

I.Factors controlling landform development; endogenic and exogenic forces; origin and
evolution of the earth’s crust; physical conditions of the earth’s interior; geosynclines;
continental drift;isostasy; sea-floor spreading; plate tectonics; mountain building;
volcanicity; earthquakes; concepts of geomorphic cycles; landforms associated with
fluvial, arid, glacial, coastal and Karst cycle; groundwater.
Elements and Factors of climate, structure and composition of atmosphere, insolation,

temperature, Pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric
circulation: planetary,monsoon and local winds; Air masses and Fronts; Hydrological
cycle; Types of condensation and precipitation; Factors of global distribution of

III.Origin of oceans and seas, Characteristic features of the ocean basins, temperature,
salinity distribution cause and effects, Ocean floor deposits, their characteristics and

classification, Ocean circulation, Waves, currents and tides, their nature, causes and
IV. Factors of climate and Environmental change. Transformation of nature by man;
environmental degradation and conservation; Nature and Types of pollution. Problems
caused by pollution, Global Warming, Global Environment Patterns, Environmental
Hazards and Risk Management.

Part –II (Marks 50)

Human Geo
V. Origin and Diffusion of Culture, Geographic patterns of culture, Classification of
Languages, World Distribution of Languages, Indo-European Languages, Origins of
Religions, Diffusion of Religions, Global Distribution, Regional conflicts, Ethnicities and
Nationalities, Ethnic Conflicts, Ethnic Diversity in the World, Factors of Ethnic
Cleansing, Ethnic Cleansing in the World, Development Indicators, Economic
Indicators, Social Indicators, Health Indicators, Development through Trade, Impacts
of development Indicators.

VI. Factors effecting Agriculture, Subsistence Agriculture and population growth,
Commercial Agriculture and Market Forces, Sustainable Agriculture, Types and
Distribution of Agriculture, Factors of Industrial locations, The Industrial Revolution,
Industrial Theories, Distribution of Industries and Industrial Estates, Renewable
Resources, Recycling Resources, Sustainable resources.

VII. Factors of Population Growth, Components of Change, Population Structure, The
Demographic Transition, World distribution of Population, Over and under Population
threats and their consequences, Models of Internal Structure of Cities, World Urban
Patterns, Settlement Theories, Patterns and Problems within urban areas.

VIII. Politics, Geography and Political Geography, State as a Politico-Territorial
Phenomenon, State, Nation and the Nation-State, World Politics and International
Relations, Geopolitics of uneven Development and Globalization of Capital,
Geography of Tourism and Recreation, The demand for tourism and recreation, The
supply for tourism and recreation, The impact of tourism and recreation: (Socioeconomic impacts, Physical-environmental impacts), Global patterns in health and
diseases, Models in medical geography, Recent issues and developments.


1.Discovering Physical Geo 2nd ed.
Hoboken:John Wiley &Sons,Inc.
Alan F. Arbogast (2011).
2.Introducing Physical Geo. Hobken: John
Wiley & Sons
Alan Strahler, (2011).
3.Atmosphere, Weather and Climate (7th ed.).
London: Clays St. Davis.
Barry, R. (1998).
4.Meknight’s Physical Geo A Landscape
application 10th ed PHI Learning, New Delhi.
Darrel Hess (2012).
5.Text Book of Population Geo, Randam
Publications, New Delhi.
Dr. Martin Ardagh (2013).
6.Atmosphere, Climate and Change. New York:
Scientific American Library
Graedel, T. (1995).
7.An Introduction to Oceanography.Johnson H. (1996).
8.Economic Geography, Randam Publications,
New Delhi.
Philip Emeral (2013).
9.Essentials of Physical Geography 8thed
Robert E. Gabler& James F.
Petersen (2007)
10.Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical
Geography 7th ed. New Jersey:Pearson Prentice
Robert W. Christopherson
11.Tourism Geography: Randam Publications, New
Shweta Singh (2013).
12.Elements of physical geography. New York.
John Wiley.
Strahler, A. N. (1998).
13.Natural Disaster Management: New
technologies and opportunities, The Icfai Uni.
Press, Agartala.
Subir Ghosh (2012).
14.Economic Geography 3rd ed. PHI Learning, New
Truman A. Hartshorn (2010).
15.Environmental Geography: Science LanduseWilliam M. Marsh (2005).

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