Geology Part- I (50-marks)

I. Introduction to Physical Geology
Introduction and scope of geology, its importance and relationship with other
sciences; Earth as a member of the solar system: its origin, age, composition and
internal structure; Introduction to rocks and minerals; Weathering and erosion;
Isostasy; Geological Time Scale.
II. Stratigraphy and Palaeontology
Principles of stratigraphy; Laws of superposition and faunal succession; Geological
time scale with divisions; Classification and nomenclature of stratigraphic units:
lithostragraphic units, bio stratigraphic units and chronostratigraphic units.
Introduction to fossils and their significance; Modes of fossilization; Study of
morphology, range and broad classification of major invertebrate phyla; Introduction
to micro fossils; Introduction to Palaeobotany; Introduction and classification of major
vertebrates; Introduction to micropaleontology

III. Mineralogy
Classification of minerals; Study of internal structure; Polymorphism and
isomorphism; Para genesis; Physical and optical properties of the common silicate
and non-silicate mineral groups; Introduction to crystallography: elements of
symmetry, study; normal classes of crystallographic systems.
IV. Structural Geology and Tectonics
Stress-strain concepts; factors controlling the mechanical behavior of materials;
Folds; Faults; Joints; Foliation: terminology, classification and relationship with
bedding; Lineation; Unconformity.
Plate tectonics theory; Geological evidences for continental drift; Sea-floor
spreading; Oceanic ridges; Continental rifts; Intra-oceanic islands; Hot spot and
Mantle plumes; Wilson Cycle; Tectonic framework of Pakistan.

V. Petrology and Petrography
Introduction, classification and description of sedimentary rocks; origin;
transportation and deposition of sediments; Texture of sedimentary rocks;
Sedimentary structures, their classification, morphology and significance;
Composition, origin, differentiation and evolution of magma; Classification of
igneous rocks; Mode of occurrences and types of extrusive rocks; Texture and
structure of igneous rocks; Introduction to metamorphism; Types of metamorphism;
Grades, zones and facies of metamorphism; Metamorphic diffusion and
differentiation; Metamorphism in relation to Plate Tectonics; Differentiation between
metamorphism and metasomatism.
Introduction to Polarizing Microscope; Optical properties of opaque and non-opaque
minerals in plane polarized light and under crossed Nicol including metallic under
reflected light; Description of optical properties of common rock forming minerals.

Part- II (50-marks)
I. Introduction to Geophysics
Definition and relation of geophysics with other sciences; Classification and brief
description of various branches of geophysics such as seismology, geomagnetism,
geoelectricity, tectonophysics, gravimetry, geo-thermy and geodesy; Introduction to
various geophysical techniques for exploration of mineral deposits, oil and gas,
subsurface water and engineering works.
II. Sequence Stratigraphy
Introduction: history, concept and significance of sequence stratigraphy; Data
sources: seismic reflections, outcrops, well logs, core and seismic facies;
Sea level changes: their causes and effects, accommodation, eustatic and relative
sea curve; Hierarchy of sequence stratigraphic elements; Types of sequences and
systems tracts.

III. Petroleum Geology
The nature and classification of petroleum hydrocarbons, their origin, migration and
accumulation; Source sediments, reservoir rocks and trapping mechanism for oil
and gas; Prospecting and exploration of oil and gas; Reservoir: characteristics, drive
mechanism, energy and pressure maintenance; Secondary and enhanced recovery;
Introduction to Sedimentary Basins of Pakistan.

IV. Engineering and Environmental Geology
Rock and soil mechanics and its application in civil engineering; Rock mass
characteristics; Geotechnical studies of rocks and soils; Geological factors and
strength of rocks; Study of geological factors in relation to the construction of
buildings’ foundations, roads, highways, tunnels, dams and bridges; Application of
geophysical methods for site investigation; Construction materials; Mass movement:
their causes and prevention.
Introduction to environmental geology; Management of natural resources; Global
climatic changes; Environmental controls for erosion, desertification and coastal
degradation; Geological hazards such as floods, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis,
volcanoes, glaciers and shoreline processes; Remedial measures; Clean sources
of energy; Industrial pollution, solid and liquid waste disposal, Introduction to
environmental impact assessment and initial environmental examination.

V. Mineral and Energy Resources
Introduction of geological exploration/prospecting. Brief description of hydrocarbons,
coal, gemstones, copper, lead, zinc, iron, gold, chromite, manganese, salt,
gypsum, bauxite, sulphur, barite, fluorite, clays, phosphorite, building and dimension
stones; Industrial rocks and minerals; Radioactive minerals and rocks; Special
reference to economic mineral deposits in Pakistan.
Origin, occurrence, and depositional environments of coal; Coal constitution and its
kinds; Coal rank, grade and calorific value; Coal deposits of Pakistan with reference
to Thar Coal; Geothermal energy resources of Pakistan.

VI. Economic and Applied Geology
Metallic and Non-metallic mineral resources of Pakistan; Mineral-based industries.
Overview of Recode Copper; Radioactive minerals and their occurrences in
Pakistan; Gemstones of Pakistan.
Geology of Reservoirs, dams, highways and tunnels; Major natural hazards and their
impacts on the environment with special reference to Pakistan.


1.Physical GeologyCharles Plummer, David
McGeary, Diane Carlson,
2.Physical GeologyCharles (Carlos) Plummer,
Diane Carlson
3.Principles of Physical GeologyHolmes, A
4.Principles of PaleontologyRaup, D.M. & Stanley, S.M
5.Vertebrate PaleontologyRomer, A.S
6.Invertebrate Paleontology and EvolutionClakson, E.N.K
7.Stratigraphy of PakistanShah, S.M.I.
8.Principles of Sedimentology and StratigraphyBoggs, S
9.Stratigraphy and Historical Geology of
Kazmi, A.H and Abbasi, I.A
10.Igneous and Metamorphic PetrologyBest, M.G.,
11.Introduction to Optical MineralogyNesse, W.D
12.An Atlas of Minerals in Thin SectionSchulze, D.J.,
13.Minerals and RocksKlein, C.,
14.Mineral Characterisation and ProcessingMohapatra, B.K., Misra, V
15.Principles of MineralogyWilliam. H.B.,
16.MineralogyPerkins, D
17.Plate Tectonics – GeodynamicsMoores, E.M. & Twiss, R.J
18.Structural Geology of Rocks and RegionsGeorge H. Davis, Stephen J.
Reynolds, Charles F. Kluth
19.Structural GeologyTwiss, R.J. & Moores, E.M.,
20.Carbonate SedimentologyTucker, M.E. & Wright, V.P
21.Applied SedimentologySelly, R.C.,
22.Petrology of Sedimentary RocksBoggs Jr. S
23.Sedimentary RocksPettijohn, F.J
24.Introduction to Applied GeophysicsBurger R.H., Sheehan, A. &
Jones, C


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